In many way, the education institution has the role of performing social reconstruction in order to help every one attaining social well-being in which every one will have equal access to all the basic human needs (water, food, shelter, education, and health services) and able to coexist peacefully in communities. No one shall be deprived of the opportunity for advancement.
Social reconstruction is defined as “… a condition in which the population achieves a level of tolerance and peaceful co-existence; gains social cohesion through acceptance of a national identity that transcends individual, sectarian, and communal differences; has the mechanisms and will to resolve disputes nonviolently; has community institutions that bind society across divisions; and addresses the legacy of past abuses.” (United States Institute of Peace, n.d.).
Due to lack of mutual understanding and communication break down, racial discrimination and conflicts may lead to racial riots and disharmony. There is a needs to formulate and implement reconciliation programs promote tolerance and mutual respect, reduce anger and prejudice from the conflict, foster inter-group understanding, strengthen nonviolent conflict resolution mechanisms, and heal the wounds of conflict.
Mean while, plans and action to improve the living condition and standard of the deprived groups is necessary so that the aim of achieving social well-being can be realized. In the Malaysian context, the Government and enacted laws and allocate funds in accordance to the need for the Aborigines, indigenous people and those who live in the interior. The Non-Governmental Organization, too hand contributed significantly to these effort.
Any way the focus of this topic shall be the role of the Government in planning and implementing action plan for for the aborigines, the indigenous and people living in the interior regarding the following aspects:
- Skills and Enterpreneur training
- Religious Development
- Literacy education
The Aborigines, Indigenous and those residing in the interior are consider under perform academically as compared to the the other major ethnic groups and urban dwellers. The government and many NGOs are channeling their time, financial support and human capital trying to help them to advance to another level in academic, economic and social development.
The government had enacted the Aboriginal People Act 1954 – Act 134 (Amendment 2006) had outline the scope of protection of the aboriginal people’s rights including:
- the right of occupancy in the aborigines area. they are not obliged to leave lands declared to be Malay reserves area.
- the right to preserve their reserved land, and be paid compensation for acquisition.
- removal of undesirable person from the aboriginal people’s area if one’s activity may be detrimental the welfare of the later.
- the hereditary Headman shall become the Headman of the aboriginal community. Any way it is subject to the Ministry’s confirmation and the later may remove him from the position.
- aborigines shouldn’t be excluded in any school.
- (section 19, Regulations) “providing for the establishment of schools in aboriginal areas, aboriginal reserves and aboriginal inhabited places and prescribing the curricula of the schools and the qualifications of teachers in the schools”.
- Portal Rasmi Jabatan Kemajuan Orang Asli (JAKOA)
- Akta 134, Akta Orang Asli 1954 – Mengandungi semua semua pindaan sehingga 1 Jan 2006 (Malay language version)
- Aboriginal People Act 1954 (Act 134) – Incorporating all amendments up to January 2006 (English version)
Malaysia. The Commissioner of the Law Revision. (2006). Act 134 Aboriginal People Act 1954: Incorporating all amendments up to January 2006. Retrieved March 11, 2015 from http://www.kptg.gov.my/sites/default/files/article/Act%20134-Oboriginal%20Peoples%20Act.pdf.
Kamarulzaman Kamaruddin. (2008). Educational policy and opportunities of Orang Asli: a study on indigenous people in Malaysia. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. 4, Num. 1, June 2008. Retrieved http://hraljournal.com/Page/Kamaruddin.pdf.
Ramle bin Abdullah, Wan Hasmah Wan Mamat, W. A. Amir Zal & Asmawi Mohamad bin Ibrahim. (2013). Teaching and learning problems of the orang asli education: students’ perspective. Asian Social Science; 9(12); 2013. Retrieved Feb 21, 2015 from http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/download/30049/178062
Suruhanjaya Hak Asasi Manusia Malaysia. (2010). Laporan status hak pendidikan kanak-kanak orang asli. Retrieved Feb 21, 2015 from http://www.suhakam.org.my/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Laporan-Status-Hak-Pendidikan-Kanak-Kanak-Orang-Asli-2010.pdf
United States Institute of Peace. (n.d.). Social reconstruction. Retrieved March 17, 2015 from http://www.usip.org/guiding-principles-stabilization-and-reconstruction-the-web-version/10-social-well-being/social-reco
Washing the tigers: addressing discrimination and inequality in Malaysia. (2012). ERT Country Report Series:2 London, November 2012. Retrieved Feb 21, 2015 from http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/MalaysiaCR201.pdf