The Razak Report (1956)

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Tun Hj. Abdul Razak bin Hussein (11 March 1922 – 14 January 1976)

After implementing the Education Ordinance 1952 for three years, the British Colonial government set up a the Cabinet Committee in 1955 to review the educational policies. It was headed by Tun Hj. Abdul Razak bin Hussein, then the Minister of Education, Federation of Malaya.

The Razak Report (1956) recommended a number of positive and negative sanctions which were later adopted by the Ministry of Education and other government departments of independent Malaysia. Briefly, these sanctions included:

  1. Malay language as the national language and medium of instruction.
  2. Incentive for learning the Malay language –  a qualification at the various levels of entry into the government service and selection for admission to secondary schools, and compulsory subject in Lower and National Certification of Education .
  3. Primary schools are for children age 6 to 13 years old. There will be two types of primary schools: independent and assisted.
  4. The primary school consist of Standard (Malay as medium of instruction) and Standard-type (using Chinese, Tamil or English as medium of instruction, where Malay and English language are the compulsory subjects).
  5. All schools adopt a common standardised and Malaysianised syllabus.
  6. The secondary school are catered for children whom have satisfactorily completed the primary education. It consists of independent and direct grant.
  7. The independent schools will not receive assistant form public fund any way all schools are subjected to inspection.
  8. The first three years of Secondary education qualify students to Lower Certificate of Education. Then, some may leave for employment while others shall be stream into three types of education: academic, technical and vocational.
  9. Qualified Teachers will be registered and organized into professional service on national salary scheme.
  10. In any assisted schools with no less than 15 Muslim pupils,shall provide religious study using public fund.
  11. School fees will be charged.


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