- Concept of curriculum
- Type of curriculum
- Factors Influencing curriculum change
- Technological development
- Current Needs / Security
- Government Policies
- Roles of teacher in the curriculum implementation
Concept of curriculum
The word “curriculum” began as a Latin word which means “a race” or “the course of a race” (which in turn derives from the verb currere meaning “to run/to proceed”). By the seventeenth century, the University of Glasgow also referred to its “course” of study as a “curriculum”, producing the first known use of the term in English in 1633. By the nineteenth century, European universities routinely referred to their curriculum to describe both the complete course of study (as for a degree in surgery) and particular courses and their content (Wikipedia, 2015).
“Curriculum typically refers to the knowledge and skills students are expected to learn, which includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are expected to meet; the units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to students; the books, materials, videos, presentations, and readings used in a course; and the tests, assessments, and other methods used to evaluate student learning.”
(Hidden curriculum, 2004)
It had became the syllabus to be transmitted to the students, and became the standard where the teachers need to align their approach, teaching methods, resources, assessment, etc. with the formal curriculum.
In Malaysia, the curriculum is developed by the Curriculum Development Unit and to be implemented nation wide.
The national curriculum is defined as “… an educational programme that includes curriculum and co-curricular activities which encompasses all the knowledge, skills, norms, values, cultural elements and beliefs to help develop a pupil fully with respect to the physical, spiritual, mental and emotional aspects as well as to inculcate and develop desirable moral values and o transmit knowledge“
Education Act 1996 [Education (National Curriculum) Regulations 1997]
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