Types of curriculum
There are many different types of curriculum where the classification may varies between individuals or school of thoughts. We shall be touching on the Formal, Informal and Hidden Curriculum here.
Official Curriculum (Formal Curriculum)
“The formal curriculum is the planned programme of objectives, content, learning experiences, resources and assessment offered by a school. It is sometimes called the ‘official curriculum’.”
The formal curriculum are often the written and overt form of curricular planning. The official curriculum is often implemented in all schools nation wide. It clearly defined the function of the educational institution, the role of the teachers, the approach, methodology and content to be transmitted to the learners.
The formal curriculum may be designed and developed as the followings:
- traditional (classical) subject-based curriculum
- teacher-centered curriculum
- student-centered curriculum
- activity-based curriculum
- integrated curriculum
Let’s find out more about the characteristics of each of the design mention above.
As Combs with Prosser and Ahmed (1973, cited in Smith, 2001) has concluded that “Formal education is hierarchically structured, chronologically graded ‘education system’, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialised programmes and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.”
Formal education is normally is implement in a long term basis in full-time mode. Individual may need to satisfy certain entry requirement before one is permitted to enroll for the educational programme. The educational content is standardize, more teacher-centred and resource intensive, rigidly structured with external control and monitoring. At the end of the educational programme, individual is awarded with official credential that certified individual’s achievement (Smith, 2001).
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