T5 Curriculum in education

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Types  of  curricular  changes

There may be particular tendency to switch the priority and emphasis on partial or radical changes to the existing curriculum such as:

  • From academic objectives to vocational objectives;
  • More individualistic and personalized curriculum;
  • Introduction of a whole new degree program or specialised stream at the undergraduate level;
  • Introduction of a whole new (course-work) degree program at the postgraduate level;
  • Introduction of a new subject, or deletion of an existing subject;
  • Change to or within a first-year or other core subject, such as a change to the first language taught to undergraduate students;
  • Change to or within an elective subject, such as a change in the choice of AI language used in a third-year subject.

(Gruba; Moffat; Søndergaard & Zobel,  2004)

Factors Influencing curriculum change

  • Values  and  issues – humanism for all versus humanism for some, cognitive versus mental health (affective, etiquette, aesthetic) (Inlow, 1965).
  • Influential individual – Influential or outspoken leader or authoritative figures whom initiated the change (Gruba; Moffat; Søndergaard & Zobel,  2004)
  • Financial pressures – Funding for educational programmes, infrastructures, etc.(Gruba; Moffat; Søndergaard & Zobel,  2004)
  • Staffing issues and workload – The number and the quality of the relevant skilled personnel, pedagogic argument, etc.  (Gruba; Moffat; Søndergaard & Zobel,  2004)
  • Technological development – Globalization, advancement of Information and Communication Technology
  • Current Needs – Competition, Nation building, Political, Economical and social development (Fotheringham; Strickland &  Aitchison, 2012)
  • Social structure and pressure group demanding certain curriculum change.
  • Security – Political stability, loyalty and citizenship
  • Government Policies – Vision, mission and national philosophy of education that drawn the scope and limit of the curriculum and education development blueprint
  • Culture – Priority cultural heritage versus social reform.


  • Can you think of other factors that contributed to the change in curriculum?
  • Among the factors mentioned above, which three will you consider the most important of all? Why would you say so?
  • Do you agree that we can maintain the status quo without changing the curriculum? Justify your claim.

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